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Section Z


Can refer to:
(1) A variation of the “Leave it” exercise, where a dog is either told not to take an object he wants, or generally only takes objects after being told he can. This term was popularized as part of Sue Ailsby’s Training Levels; she refers to teaching Zen as rewarding dogs for moving away from an object they want or displaying relaxed behaviors in its presence.
(2) A variation of “down”, where a dog is taught to lie down and relax whilst in the presence of things he wants to interact with.

Zero Contingency

In a positive contingency, the conditioned stimulus occurs with the unconditioned stimulus – in Pavlov’s example, the bell occurs just before the food.

In a zero contingency, the unconditioned stimulus also occurs randomly at other times. When this happens, it means that the conditioned stimulus does not predict the unconditioned stimulus.

With no prediction present, the dog does not make the desired association. So, Pavlov’s dog would not learn that that bell is associated with the food, and therefore wouldn’t salivate when he hears the bell.


A chemical compound that can be used to sterilize male dogs without surgery.  It contains zinc gluconate and arginine, an amino acid.


The brand name for a nutraceutical compound derived from cow’s milk.  These products are said to promote calmness and decrease anxiety in dogs with mild behavioral problems.