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Differential Reinforcement

Reinforcing one choice much more heavily than others when the dog is presented with several choices about which behavior to perform.

Dogs will always choose the behavior with the strongest history of good consequences, so choosing to reinforce one possible behavior in a situation and not others will lead the dog to perform that behavior more often than the others.

This is especially useful when one of the other possible behaviors is self-reinforcing, such as chasing a cat.